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GEB 2860: Business Administration Capstone; Professor Wagner: APA Citations & Avoiding Plagiarism

How to Cite Company Profiles on Business Insights

Since there is no Citation Tool for Company Profiles in the Business Insights: Essentials database, use the examples below as your guide:

  • Publix Super Markets, Inc. (2018). Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved from http://db22.linccweb.org/login?url=https://bi-gale-com.db22.linccweb.org/essentials/company/83305?u=lincclin_pcc

  • Gale Business Insights Online. (2018). Publix Super Markets, Inc. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved from http://db22.linccweb.org/login?url=https://bi-gale-com.db22.linccweb.org/essentials/company/83305?u=lincclin_pcc

APA also uses (n.d). for no date. Normally you show database names in MLA, but not in APA. But this is an exception, since the database is the author and publisher of some of its content, like the company profiles. APA always requires a link to the source for online materials, either Retrieved from followed by the URL, or the DOI number that you will see on some journal articles.

Citing Personal Experiences or Interpersonal Communications

Personal experiences and knowledge generally do not need to be cited in an APA references page or within the body (in-text citation) of your paper. Personal experience and knowledge is part of your voice; it is what you bring to your paper.  If you use personal knowledge that is unusual or to make a statement that someone might question, however, you will want to find research to back your knowledge up.

Personal interviews and other types of interpersonal communications (interviews, phone calls, emails, memos, personal letters, conversations, texts, IM chats, unrecorded class lectures, live speeches, etc.) should not be cited in the reference page because they are not recoverable by your reader. They all need to be cited in-text, but not in the reference list. Provide the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, indicate it's a personal communication, and as an exact date as possible for the citation.

Examples of in-text citations for personal interviews and other types of interpersonal communications:

According to L. Harrington (personal communication, February 22, 2011), interviews included in papers need to be relevant.

Sample paraphrase sentence here.....(E. Grimm, personal communication, December 3, 2012).

Why Cite?

Why do we "Document" or "Cite" sources?

A properly formatted works cited or references page will show readers the sources you consulted, giving credit to those authors for their ideas. 

Whenever you base your ideas on another person's work or quote someone, you must document the source you utilized. Even when you do not quote directly from someone elses' work, if reading that source contributed to the ideas presented in your paper, you must credit the author to avoid plagiarizing them. Whether you paraphrase or directly quote, always give credit to the source(s) you consulted.

Plagiarism is the act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization or representing another's work as one's own.

Image of Goblin Threat Plagiarism Game Homepage from Lycoming CollegeThink you are a plagiarism prevention expert?

You can test your knowledge about plagiarism by finding and destroying the plagiarism goblins in the Goblin (Threat) Game created by Mary Broussard at Lycoming College: http://www.lycoming.edu/library/instruction/tutorials/plagiarismGame.aspx

In-Text Citations

Add in-text citations so the reader will know which source was used as well as the particular portion (page number).

An in-text citation will follow the sentence, but come before the ending punctuation (like in these parenthesis). In APA, a basic in-text citation will consist of the author's last name followed by a comma the year of publication a comma the letter p immediately followed by a period and the page number where the information came from.

The in-text citation for this sentence could look like this (Smith, 2015, p.186). While a nod to another source may look like this (Jones & Lee, 2018, p.58).

Not all in-text citations will be as simple as those above. What if you are citing a video, a play, or a website with no author? The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) summarizes and provides examples of different varieties of in-text citations here:  https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html 

Remember - Every source listed on your APA Works Cited page should have one or more corresponding in-text citation(s) within your paper.

APA Information & Resources

Writing & Tutors (TLCC)

FREE Tutoring is still available during Spring 2021! Enroll in the Canvas tutoring course (this is a service NOT a graded class) by going to: https://canvas.polk.edu/enroll/ENYJRB


Writing tutors are available to work with students on the writing process for Polk State College course assignments. During the interactive session, the tutors can assist with specific questions about the writing process, including brainstorming and planning, revising rough drafts, preparing citations, and formatting a document.

Tutoring is available to currently enrolled Polk State College students at no cost.

Tutoring schedules:https://www.polk.edu/teaching-learning-computing-center-tlcc/tutoring/tutoring-schedules/

Need More?

For more MLA & APA tools, consult our Library Guide on Documenting Resources (Citations)

Or check out the APA Official Site by clicking below:

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